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But Albert recontextualizes and reverses this feeling when she inserts the Dylan lyric in the context of breastfeeding. Mina has not slept or eaten, and in her mad reverie, she sings this line to her son.

We connect this scene and the Dylan lyric to the story of Romulus and Remus, the founders of Rome, who were saved by a she-wolf who suckled them Fig. The European and American literary tradition, built upon the Greek and Roman mythology that elides women even in birth narratives, will remain, at its core, misogynist, unless we pay attention to writers like Albert, who shows us, like the wild wolf, that the female body must be honored for its capacity to sustain humanity.

Capitoline wolf , bronze, c. BCE Etruscans. For one, maybe she shares it with Philip Roth. Or Philip Roth shares it with her. Maybe it results in a new baby, a new work, a new fiction. On the contrary, through a close reading of Roth as influenced by Albert, we can see that Roth is no more a misogynist than Albert is. In fact, Albert has preempted possible criticism that understands her as a self-hating woman akin to the accusations that Roth is a self-hating Jew. Like Roth, she is aware of the culture of criticism and is already in conversation with these issues: in After Birth , she names an epic all-girl band The Misogynists , and her truest female friend, Mina, the single new mom, is one of its coolest yet most broken ex-members.

No one knows how Mina got pregnant in the first place—there is no father to speak of.

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In her novel, the male role in procreation is, in this example, elided. Albert finds many ways to work within misogynist literary traditions, to mock them, to reverse them. We find it downright inspirational. Maybe someday, one of us will be writing her a fan letter to acknowledge her place in the tradition. Just as Albert demands attention to the female procreative body, she also demands to be included in a category that some of her most important influences have, with varying success and in varying contexts, elided.

Unapologetically, she lays out the case for inclusion when and where she wants it, and she writes to make her passions and desires visible. It feels like a resurgent hope born out of melting pot ideology and, at once, a new kind of American dream in which there could be equal opportunity for a variety of new voices that complicate and challenge the long history of traditions that precede them. Such critics as Kutlu , France and Doyle have read the work in terms of the commodity culture inherent in the American dream. CA: Warner Brothers, Inc.

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Aarons, V The Cambridge Companion to Philip Roth. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, pp. Albert, E How This Night is Different.

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New York: Free Press. After Birth. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Arendt, H The Human Condition. Betsky, C Doyle, T Notes on Contemporary Literature 24 1 : 2—3. Dylan, B Bob Dylan: — Lyrics. London: Simon and Schuster. France, A MELUS 15 4 : 83—9. Gooblar, D The Major Phases of Philip Roth. New York: Continuum. Introduction: Roth and Women. Philip Roth Studies 8 1 : 7— Graham, D Forum 13 3 : 68— Harraway, D New York: Routledge. Hausman, B Breastfeeding, Rhetoric, and the Politics of Feminism. Journal of Women, Politics, and Policy — Jaffe, M Pozorski, A ed.

Jaffe, M and Pozorski, A Philip Roth Studies 8 1 : 81— Kakutani, M Nude Rabbis and Tales of Revenge. Kristeva, J Roudiez, Leon S. New York: Columbia University Press. Kutlu, F Levine, M Philip Roth And American Judaism. College Language Association Journal — Macleod, N International Fiction Review 12 2 : —7.

Nash, C Publications of the Missouri Philological Association 22—7. Roth, P Goodbye, Columbus and Five Short Stories. New York: Vintage. Therefore, obesity associated with maternal nutritional restriction has a developmental origin. Based on this phenomenon, one might predict that gestational exposure to a westernized diet would protect against future obesity in offspring. However, evidence from experimental models indicates that, like maternal dietary restriction, maternal consumption of a westernized diet during gestation and lactation interacts with an adult obesogenic diet to induce further obesity.

Mechanistically, restriction of nutrients or consumption of a high fat diet during gestation may promote obesity in progeny by altering hypothalamic neuropeptide production and thereby increasing hyperphagia in offspring. In addition to changes in food intake these animals may also direct energy from muscle toward storage in adipose tissue.

Surprisingly, generational inheritance studies in rodents have further indicated that effects on body length, body weight, and glucose tolerance appear to be propagated to subsequent generations. Together, the findings discussed herein highlight the concept that maternal nutrition contributes to a legacy of obesity. Thus, ensuring adequate supplies of a complete and balanced diet during and after pregnancy should be a priority for public health worldwide.

Specifically, infection rate and intensity were quantified. Infection intensity is the number of oocysts found in the gut of infected females and relates to their ability to limit parasite development quantitative resistance. These traits were also measured in F0 females Additional file 1. The second experiment was conducted to explore whether trans-generational effects can persist over two gonotrophic cycles. This was done because individual mosquito feeding is extremely difficult using membrane assays low feeding rate, the need for a high number of feeders, high quantity of blood to be drawn to fill each feeders , hence making individual tracking very difficult when mosquitoes are fed more than once.

Offspring females of the different groups developed at similar rate and each group in each egg-lay was fed on the same gametocyte carriers at the same time. Additional file 1 shows infection rate and intensity in F0 females. Binomial and negative binomial generalized linear mixed models on offspring infection rate and intensity, respectively, were fitted. Maternal exposure was coded as a fixed factor. Maternal identity experiment 1 and replicate experiment 2 were coded as random factors.

For experiment 2, the data were also analysed with replicate set as a fixed effect Additional file 3.

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  • The relationship between infection intensity in daughters and mothers was investigated using a negative binomial GLMM. Finally, the influence of individual body size on infection rate and intensity in the first experiment was explored by including mosquito wing size a good proxy of body size in the models. All analyses were performed in R v. In both experiments, maternal parasite exposure did not modify infection rate among offspring issued from the first batch of eggs Additional file 2 and Additional file 4.

    Similarly, among second-batch offspring of mothers that received either one or two infectious blood meals, maternal exposure did not contribute to variation in qualitative resistance Additional file 2 and Additional file 4.

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    Finally, data from experiment 2, altogether replicate 1 and 2, egg-lay 1 and 2 , indicated that recent maternal exposure to P. Trans-generational effects of infection on offspring quantitative resistance a in experiment 1; b in experiment 2; c Positive relationship between infection intensity in F1 and F0 mosquitoes.

    BM: blood meal, I: infectious, NI: non-infectious. Bars with different letters are significantly different post-hoc Bonferroni-corrected comparisons. Parasite intensity was increased in offspring of mothers exposed to P.

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    The precise mechanism behind this effect is not yet clear but interactions among host resources, immune responses and parental investment are suspected. Anopheles coluzzi mothers could be subject to a trade-off between immune response and offspring quality such that when they were exposed to the parasite, they allocated more resources to their defences at the cost of producing lower quality offspring that were less resistant. In mosquitoes, previous studies have demonstrated that immune function can trade-off with reproduction [ 25 ] and that poor general condition can reduce immunocompetence and resistance to Plasmodium [ 28 , 29 ], but see [ 30 ].

    In other words, stimulating the maternal immune system may compromise offspring quality in this system.

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    Consistent with this idea, a decreased fecundity in offspring of exposed mothers was observed Additional file 8 , even when controlling for the effect of infection intensity in offspring, as previously found in malaria-infected mosquitoes [ 31 — 34 ]. Although further studies are required to investigate the underlying mechanisms, this study is the first to suggest trans-generational costs of infection on offspring resistance to the same parasite species. Finally, there was a positive relationship between parasite number in mothers and offspring.

    While this result confirms that resistance to P. Uninfected control mothers were fed with blood in which parasite infective stages were heat-inactivated [ 27 ]. The possibility that the presence of dead gametocytes in the control blood had triggered mosquito immune response cannot be ruled out see [ 37 ] and references therein. This would lessen the difference in resistance between offspring from control and infected mothers and it is, therefore, possible that the trans-generational cost of P. Trans-generational defence has been demonstrated in a number of invertebrates [ 5 , 6 , 15 ], but these findings, together with previous studies [ 14 , 21 , 38 ] and refs therein], suggest that it may not be a general phenomenon.

    These results support the idea that the evolution of trans-generational defence depends on host and parasite life history [ 6 , 21 , 37 ]. Unlike bumblebees [ 6 ] or mealworm beetle [ 15 ], the risk of mosquito contact with malaria parasites is not influenced by maternal infection status, suggesting that there would be limited benefits of trans-generational immune priming in this system.

    Quantitative resistance was slightly lower in offspring of malaria-exposed mothers. The extent to which this small reduction in resistance will contribute to disease dynamic is currently unclear but deserves consideration. Future studies combining the effects of environmental stressors, such as food limitation [ 37 ] with maternal infection history, are required to better assess the extent of maternally transmitted fitness costs on offspring resistance to P.

    Finally, this work not only highlights the importance of maternal parasite exposure in understanding the outcome of mosquito-malaria interactions, it also contributes to the current understanding of the non-genetic inheritance of host resistance in natural populations [ 38 ]. Funct Ecol. Boots M, Roberts KE: Maternal effects in disease resistance: poor maternal environment increases offspring resistance to an insect virus.